Reciprocal Teaching: Four O'Clock

Subject Area

Language Arts - Grades 6 - 8

FCAT Connection

Materials

The following materials are need for this lesson

Procedures

  1. Ask the students to take out a sheet of paper and write three things that they think that "good" readers do.
  2. Ask students to tell one thing that they have written on their papers.
  3. Tell the students that most of what they have said can be categorized into one of the strategies that are used in Reciprocal Teaching:

    Predicting, Clarifying, Questioning, Summarizing, and Visualizing.

  4. Pass out the Reciprocal Teaching bookmarks.
  5. Define each of the five parts. Explain that they may come in any order but will be done in order for this lesson.
  6. Pass out highlighters. Students will use them to highlight parts that need clarification or parts that may be good "teacher-like" questions.
  7. Write the phrase "Four O'Clock" on the board. Give students one minute to write down anything that comes to mind. Then ask them to predict from the title what they think this story will be about. Write predictions on board/overhead.
  8. Distribute copies of the story "Four O'Clock".
  9. Remind students that they are to highlight any word or idea that they do not understand or any part that will be a good teacher-like question.
  10. Model Passage One and Passage Two using Reciprocal Teaching strategies.
  11. After completing Passage One and Passage Two, make sure students understand Reciprocal Teaching strategies.
  12. Distribute Student Scripts and Student Task Cards.
  13. Remind students to use their bookmarks as guides.
  14. Ask Teacher/Leader #1 to begin.
  15. After Teacher/Leader #5 has completed his/her part, distribute Reciprocal Teaching Group Worksheets.
  16. Explain to students that they will finish the story in groups and fill out all sections of the Group Worksheet. The Teacher/Leader will be the reader for the ending of the story (see below).

    "At first," Mr. Crangle said, "the newspapers won't believe it. Even though some of it will happen right in the newspaper offices, they won't believe it. At first they won't. And then when they being to understand that it has happened to a lot of people everybody knows are evil, then they'llsee the design."

    The clock said 3:59.

    "A great story," Mr. Crangle said. "A great newspaper story. And nobody will know who did it, Pet, nobody but you and me."

    The point of the big hand crept halfway past the 3:59 dot. Mr. Crangle's heart beat hard. His eyes were wide, his lips parted. He whispered,

    "Nobody will know."

    The tip of the big hand touched the dot at the top of the clock face. The alarm went off. Mr. Crangle felt a great surge of strength, like water bursting a dam, and a great shock, as a bolt of lightening. He closed his eyes.

    "Now!" he said softly, and slumped exhausted.

    By going to the window and looking down at the crowd in the street, he could have seen whether it had worked or not. He did not go to the window. He did not need to. He knew.

    The alarm bell ran down.

    Pet cocked her head and looked at him with an eye like polished stone.

    "Nut," she said.

    His hand, as he stretched it up, failed by a full foot and a half to reach the cage.

  17. After student groups have completed the Group Worksheet, elicit, share, and discuss group responses.
  18. Ask for volunteers from the groups to help summarize the entire story on the overhead or chalkboard.

    This story about ________________ begins with ________________, discusses how ________________, and ends with ________________.

  19. Distribute the reading comprehension quiz and instruct students to complete.

Assessment

Group Worksheet
Reading Comprehension Quiz



















Reciprocal Reading: Four O'Clock

Student Script: Teacher/Leader #1

SAY:

Please highlight any word or phrase that you do not understand as I read this part of the lesson.

READ:

The following part of the lesson to the class:

"It is quite true," Mr. Crangle said at 3:49, "that only someone above all personal emotions, only someone who can look at the whole thing as if from the outside, can be trusted morally to make such a decision." As the big hand reached 3:50, he felt a sense of power surge deeply through him. "Think, Pet. In ten minutes. In ten little minutes, when I say the word, all the evil people all over the world will become half their present size, so they can be known. All the uncaught murderers and the tyrants and the proud and sinful, all the bullies and the wrongdoers and the blackmailers and nicotine fiends and transgressors." His eyes blazed with omnipotence. "All of them, every one."

Pet said, "Nut."

Mr. Crangle gave her one."I know you don't agree fully with the half-size solution," he said, "but I do believe it to be the best one, all things considered."

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #1? Was your prediction correct?

SAY:

Who has Clarifying Card #1? Is there a word or phrase that you did not understand? (If there is more that one word, clarify one word at a time.)

SAY:

Does anyone else have a clarifying question?

SAY:

Who has Visualizing Card #1? Please tell what picture came to your mind when I read this part of the lesson.

SAY:

Who has Questioning Card #1? Please ask a Teacher-like Question.

SAY:

Does anyone else have a Teacher-like Question?

SAY:

Who has Summary Card #1? Please summarize this part of the lesson in one sentence.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #2? What do you think is going to happen in the next part of the lesson?

TOP

 








Reciprocal Reading: Four O'Clock

Student Script: Teacher/Leader #2

SAY:

Please highlight any word or phrase that you do not understand as I read this part of the lesson.

READ:

The following part of the lesson to the class:

He had studied over the alternatives day and night since that morning three weeks ago when, as he sat on a bench in the park, looking at the pictures in the clouds across the lake, it came to him that he had the power to do this thing, that upon him at that moment had been bestowed the gift of putting a mark on all the bad people on earth, so that they should be known.

The realization surprised him not at all. Once before, such a thing had happened. He had once held the power to stop wars. That was when the radio was telling about the big air raids on the cities. In that case the particular thing he could do was to take the stiffness out of airplane propellers, so that some morning when the crews, bundled like children against cold, went out to get in their planes, they would find the props hanging limp, like empty banana skins.

That time, he had delayed too long, waiting for just the right time and just the right plan, and they had outwitted him, unfairly. They had invented the jet, to which his power did not apply.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #2? Was your prediction correct?

SAY:

Who has Clarifying Card #2? Is there a word or phrase that you did not understand? (If there is more that one word, clarify one word at a time.)

SAY:

Does anyone else have a clarifying question?

SAY:

Who has Visualizing Card #2? Please tell what picture came to your mind when I read this part of the lesson.

SAY:

Who has Questioning Card #2? Please ask a Teacher-like Question.

SAY:

Does anyone else have a Teacher-like Question?

SAY:

Who has Summary Card #2? Please summarize this part of the lesson in one sentence.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #3? What do you think is going to happen in the next part of the lesson?

TOP









 


Reciprocal Reading: Four O'Clock

Student Script: Teacher/Leader #3

SAY:

Please highlight any word or phrase that you do not understand as I read this part of the lesson.

READ:

The following part of the lesson to the class:

Then, too, there had been the thing about wheels. The thing about wheels came to him in a coffee place as he was looking at a newspaper photograph of a bad traffic accident, three killed. The power, that was, to change all the wheels in the world from round to square, or even to triangular if he wished, so they would stub in the asphalt and stop. But he wasn't allowed to keep that power. Before he could work out a plan anda time, he had felt it taken from him.

The power over bad people had stayed. It had even grown stronger, if power like that could grow stronger. And this time he had hurried, though of course there were certain problems to be thought through.

First, who was to decide what people were evil? That wasn't too hard, really, in spite of Pet's doubts. An evil person was a person who would seem evil to a man who held within himself the knowledge of good and evil, if that man could know all the person's innermost secrets. An evil person was a person who would seem evil to an all-knowing Mr. Crangle.

Then, how to do it, the method? Mark them on the forehead, or turn them all one color, say purple? But then they would simply be able to recognize each other the more readily, and to band together in their wickedness.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #3? Was your prediction correct?

SAY:

Who has Clarifying Card #3? Is there a word or phrase that you did not understand? (If there is more that one word, clarify one word at a time.)

SAY:

Does anyone else have a clarifying question?

SAY:

Who has Visualizing Card #3? Please tell what picture came to your mind when I read this part of the lesson.

SAY:

Who has Questioning Card #3? Please ask a Teacher-like Question.

SAY:

Does anyone else have a Teacher-like Question?

SAY:

Who has Summary Card #3? Please summarize this part of the lesson in one sentence.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #4? What do you think is going to happen in the next part of the lesson?

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Reciprocal Teaching: Four O'Clock

Student Script: Teacher/Leader #4

SAY:

Please highlight any word or phrase that you do not understand as I read this part of the lesson.

READ:

The following part of the lesson to the class:

When at last he hit upon the idea of a change in size, what came to him first was the thought of doubling the height and bulk of all the bad people. That would make them inefficient. They couldn't handle delicate scientific instruments or typewriters or adding machines or telephone dials. In time they would expire from bigness, like the dinosaurs in the article in the Sunday paper. But they might first run wild, with their great weight and strength, and hurt people. Mr. Crangle wouldn't have liked that. He hated violence.

Half-size people, it was true, might be able to manipulate some of the machines. They could also be dangerous. But it would take them a long time to develop tools and weapons to their scale, and think how ridiculous they would be, meanwhile, with their clothes twice too big and their hats falling down over their ears.

At 3:54, Mr. Crangle smiled at the thought of how ridiculous they would be.

"Nut," pet said.

He reached up and gave her one, his eyes still on the clock.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #4? Was your prediction correct?

SAY:

Who has Clarifying Card #4? Is there a word or phrase that you did not understand? (If there is more that one word, clarify one word at a time.)

SAY:

Does anyone else have a clarifying question?

SAY:

Who has Visualizing Card #4? Please tell what picture came to your mind when I read this part of the lesson.

SAY:

Who has Questioning Card #4? Please ask a Teacher-like Question.

SAY:

Does anyone else have a Teacher-like Question?

SAY:

Who has Summary Card #4? Please summarize this part of the lesson in one sentence.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #5? What do you think is going to happen in the next part of the lesson?

TOP

 














 


Reciprocal Teaching: Four O'Clock

Student Script: Teacher/Leader #5

SAY:

Please highlight any word or phrase that you do not understand as I read this part of the lesson.

READ:

The following part of the lesson to the class:

"I think," he said, "that the most interesting place to be would be at a murder trial where nobody knew whether the accused was guilty or not.

And then at four o'clock, if he was guilty--"

Mr. Crangle's breath was coming faster. The clock hands stood at 3:56.

"Or watching the drunkards in a saloon," he said.

"Nut," Pet said, and he gave her one. "Oh," he said, "there are so many places, so many places to be. But I'd rather be with you when it happens, Pet. Right here alone with you."

He sat tense in his chair. He could actually see the big hand of the clock move, in the tiniest little jerkings, leaving a hairline of white between itself and the black 3:57 dot, and moving to the 3:58 dot, narrowing the space, until it touched that dot, and then stood directly on it, and then moved past toward the 3:59 dot.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #5? Was your prediction correct?

SAY:

Who has Clarifying Card #5? Is there a word or phrase that you did not understand? (If there is more that one word, clarify one word at a time.)

SAY:

Does anyone else have a clarifying question?

SAY:

Who has Visualizing Card #5? Please tell what picture came to your mind when I read this part of the lesson.

SAY:

Who has Questioning Card #5? Please ask a Teacher-like Question.

SAY:

Does anyone else have a Teacher-like Question?

SAY:

Who has Summary Card #5? Please summarize this part of the lesson in one sentence.

SAY:

Who has Predicting Card #5? What do you think is going to happen next?

TOP